Who doesn’t love a good test?  The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck is directly linked to the biblical allusion in Genesis chapter three. Adam and Eve were the first humans to experience a test of temptation, which in part lead to the fall of humanity and their loss of innocence. In the Garden of Eden, God commands them never to eat from the tree of knowledge of good and evil. The devil then tempts them into eating the forbidden fruit, which leads to the corruption of the entire natural world. After doing so, their eyes are spiritually opened and they are ashamed of their nakedness. Consequently, they are expelled from the garden, and cause all of humanity to now be born into original sin. In Steinbeck’s novel, the first scene begins with the fall of man in Oklahoma State owing to natural calamities behind which is the perceptible wrath of God. The title The Grapes of Wrath is a clear reference to the Garden of Eden. The “grapes” refer symbolically to the fruit of the forbidden tree. “Wrath” involves the consequences of Adam and Eve from their disobedience to God. The first test corresponds directly to times in the history of American civilization. At first, the Joads (Ma, Pa, Noah, and Tom) and other families were living in Oklahoma during the dust bowl. The drought dramatically changed their living conditions as machines started to replace men and tear down their property. As a result, they were forced to move from their native land to undertake a long journey to California. On Route 66, The Joad family went through numerous struggles to reach the Promised Land.  On the trip, their family was tested in attempting to keep each other from falling before they reached their aspirations. During this period, their state of innocence was lost by experience on the journey as the wrath of God emptied into their lives.

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