The basis of the crucifixion motif in American literature is in the creation of a Christ figure through physical or social sacrifice. Such sacrifice can be seen in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s, The Scarlet Letter when Hester Pryne is forced to stand atop scaffolding for three hours while dawning the scarlet A. Hester is made an exile in society for, like Christ, the sins of others. Although Dimmesdale is equally culpable for Pearl’s birth out of wed lock, Hester alone feels the consequences. Pearl’s acceptance into affluent society after Hester’s death is another example of how Hester’s societal sacrifice, similar to Christ’s, benefitted those whom she looked after during her lifetime. In the realm of realism, the crucifixion is seen in Mark Twain’s novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn when Huck claims he is going to hell for choosing to help Jim escape slavery. In this case, Huck not only refers to the biblical hell, but also to the possibility that he will be condemned by society for choosing a morally unpopular, but personally just course of action. In doing so, Huck submits to the possibility of cultural sacrifice, in order to fight for the oppressed. Crucifixion is seen in modernism in Earnest Hemingway’s story, The Old Man and the Sea, when Santiago carries his own mast into town after his fight with the Marlin. The fisherman’s bloodied hands and cross carrying are obvious examples of bible imagery. By having Santiago’s physical state mirror Christ’s state on the cross, Hemingway broadens the meaning of his story to biblical proportion, and intensifies Santiago’s struggle with the Marlin. By including Christ figures in their work, American authors of many styles create tension by connecting their characters’ sacrifices to the greatest literary sacrifice of all time: the crucifixion.